Few weeks ago, a friend casually told me when we were hanging out that he was diagnosed with hepatitis. When I asked him which one, he looked stunned and blurted out “What do you mean by ‘which one’? Do we have a lot?” His stunned look shocked me, but I kind of expected it. People don’t really know much about different types of hepatitis, and I think in the event of #World_Hepatitis_Day that was marked yesterday, it is about time I provide some information about it.
Diagnosis has important implications for patient care, research, and policy. Diagnosis has been described as both a process and a classification scheme, or a “pre-existing set of categories agreed upon by the medical profession to designate a specific condition”. When a diagnosis is accurate and made in a timely manner, a patient has the best opportunity for a positive health outcome because clinical decision making will be tailored to a correct understanding of the patient’s health problem. In addition, public policy decisions are often influenced by diagnostic information, such as setting payment policies, resource allocation decisions, and research priorities.
The natural history of a disease classifies into five stages: underlying, susceptible, subclinical, clinical, and recovery/disability/death. Corresponding preventive health measures have been grouped into similar stages to target the prevention of these stages of a disease. These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Combined, these strategies not only aim to prevent the onset of disease through risk reduction, but also downstream complications of a manifested disease.
The wake of COVID-19 has shown us that human and scientific efforts are required to combat diseases. However, the sudden outbreak of a pandemic like COVID-19 could also divert attention of researchers and scientists from focusing on existing and ongoing research to the new enemy of humanity. One area we hope will not be pushed aside is the role of probiotics and nutraceuticals in nutrition, health, and wellbeing and of course, cure for some for some diseases. This article focuses on probiotics and potentials for the treatment of ulcers.
Gout is a multifactorial ailment with predisposing factors of high purine diet, usage of diuretics, kidney dysfunction and alcohol consumption. It is a chronic disease characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal in the joints and hyperuricemia,
Coronaviruses (CoV), including SARS CoV, are single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family Coronaviridae. Coronaviruses are spread by the respiratory route.Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by SARS coronavirus (SARSCoV), which is spread by the respiratory route and through the ingestion of aerosolized faeces via contamination of the hands and environment. Close contact with asymptomatic person poses the highest risk of infection. In recent outbreak, mostcases occurred in hospital workers or family members in contact with cases.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prediction models stratify a woman’s risk for developing cancer and can guide screening recommendations based on the presence of known and quantifiable hormonal, environmental, personal, or genetic risk factors. Mammography remains the mainstay breast cancer screening and detection but magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have become useful diagnostic adjuncts in select patient populations.
Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics). Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”. As a result, the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others.
In 1890, Emil Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato reported an extraordinary experiment. They immunized rabbits with tetanus and then collected serum from these animals. Subsequently, they injected 0.2 ml of the immune serum into the abdominal cavity of six mice. After 24 hours, they infected the treated animals and untreated controls with live, virulent tetanus bacteria. All of the control mice died within 48 hours of infection, whereas the treated mice not only survived but showed no effects of infection.
In the field of infectious diseases, two of the most dreaded types of infection are disseminated infections and opportunistic infections. Without these two forms of infections, most diseases would easily be resolved. Co-infection is another complication, but we’ll discuss that at another date.
So, we’ve been able to discover the factors that can initiate infections in the last post, and we’ve identified that immunocompromisity is one of the primary causes. Let’s now take a brief look at the possible ways in which our first lines of immune defense, which are incidentally at the sites/points of entry, can be breached and compromised.
Before any individual can be infected, there must be a point of entry. For us humans, most of our sense organs are point of entry for microorganisms, and they also double as initiation point for infection most times. Hence, we have the following entry points for infective microorganisms: mouth, ear, nose, eyes, skin and sex organs (genitalia).
What Are Some Other Problems Related to Autoimmune Diseases?
Having a chronic disease can affect almost every part of your life. The problems you might have with an autoimmune disease vary. They may include:
How you look and your self-esteem — Depending on your disease, you may have discolored or damaged skin or hair loss. Your joints may look different. These can all affect how you look and your self-esteem. Such problems can’t always be prevented. But their effects can be reduced with treatment. Cosmetics, for example, can hide a skin rash. Surgery can correct a malformed joint.
One of the main hypotheses used to explain the increased risk for infection and mortality during pregnancy has been the concept of “pregnancy as an immune suppressed condition”. The “paradox of pregnancy” as a semi-allograft has been approached from the point of perspective of organ transplantation. The view of the foetus as an organ transplant, and the requirement of systemic immune suppression for the success of the transplant, led to the proposal of pregnancy as a condition of systemic immune suppression as a requirement for the success of the pregnancy. From this point of view, similarly as in immune suppressed patients, pregnancy is in a state of weak immunologic protection.