New Concepts in Nutraceuticals as Alternative for Pharmaceuticals

by Hamid Nasri, Azar Baradaran, Hedayatollah Shirzad, and Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

Introduction

Nutraceutic is a term derived from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutics.” The term is applied to products that are isolated from herbal products, dietary supplements (nutrients), specific diets, and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages that other than nutrition are also used as medicine.

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pineapple next to bowl
Probiotics (II): Mechanisms of Action

Although the exact ways of actions are not fully understood, the possible modes of probiotics action include the following:

Enhancement of epithelial barrier function

Intestinal barrier function is maintained by several interrelated systems including mucus secretion, chloride and water secretion, and binding together of epithelial cells at their apical junctions by tight junction proteins. Integral to the gut barrier defense is mucus which is composed of mucins (MUC 2 and MUC 3) which are secreted from the goblet cells.

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Vine Cutting Propagation in Four Varieties of Yam Using Different Planting Media

By Gbadamosi, A.E., Ajayi, A.T. and Osekita, O.S. 

Yams (Dioscorea spp), are one of the most  important staple crops in West Africa. They belong to the family Dioscoreaceae,  which produce economically important tubers  and bulbils. They are vegetatively  propagated by small whole tubers or pieces (>200  g) of tubers. Yam  (Dioscorea spp.) originated from Africa and Asia  and later spread to other parts of the world. There are many cultivars of yam,  though only six are important as staple foods in  the tropics. The economically important species  grown are Dioscorea rotundata (white yam),  Dioscorea alata (water yam), Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam), Dioscorea esculenta (Chinese yam)  and Dioscorea dumetorum (trifoliate yam).

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field of plants
Genetic variation & tolerance indices interactions among wheat accessions under drought

by Victor Olugbenga Olumekun, Abiola Toyin Ajayi and Oluwasegun Victor Ibidapo

In recent times, wheat has gained more acceptance and utilisation over the traditional staples such as tubers and  other cereals in Africa as a  consequence of increased demand for dietary enhancement  due to urbanisation and increased population in regions  where staple was predominantly known to come from  maize. The pressure on wheat has now  risen to the level in which local production is grossly  overwhelmed by demand, hence the reliance on  importation to cater for the deficit in local supply. Developing nations in general have therefore  progressively become significant net importers of wheat,  accounting for 43% of their food imports. Africa’s wheat  importation is anticipated to increase by 23.1 million  metric tonnes by 2050 with both the largest rate of  population growth and wheat consumption per person.

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assorted beans placed in rows on white fabric
Crossability and inheritance of seed coat colour in cowpea at F1 generation

By Abiola Toyin Ajayi

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a crop of significant importance in Africa; it serves as a source of proteins in the tropical and subtropical countries, where Nigeria is ranked the highest in terms of production. It is a source of income for the people of Africa where it is widely cultivated for different purposes. Despite the good attributes of cowpea, one of the major constraints hampering its productivity in Nigeria is drought.

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