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Viral Hepatitis: Types, Transmission and Control.

by Tayo Fasuan

Few weeks ago, a friend casually told me when we were hanging out that he was diagnosed with hepatitis. When I asked him which one, he looked stunned and blurted out “What do you mean by ‘which one’? Do we have a lot?” His stunned look shocked me, but I kind of expected it. People don’t really know much about different types of hepatitis, and I think in the event of #World_Hepatitis_Day that was marked yesterday, it is about time I provide some information about it.

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blue and silver stetoscope
The Diagnostic Process


Diagnosis has important implications for patient care, research, and policy. Diagnosis has been described as both a process and a classification scheme, or a “pre-existing set of categories agreed upon by the medical profession to designate a specific condition”. When a diagnosis is accurate and made in a timely manner, a patient has the best opportunity for a positive health outcome because clinical decision making will be tailored to a correct understanding of the patient’s health problem. In addition, public policy decisions are often influenced by diagnostic information, such as setting payment policies, resource allocation decisions, and research priorities.

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Disease Prevention Strategies

By Lisa A. Kisling and Joe M Das.


The natural history of a disease classifies into five stages: underlying, susceptible, subclinical, clinical, and recovery/disability/death. Corresponding preventive health measures have been grouped into similar stages to target the prevention of these stages of a disease. These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Combined, these strategies not only aim to prevent the onset of disease through risk reduction, but also downstream complications of a manifested disease.

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Product Review: Vantage Tea Blend

Click to purchase Vantage Tea Blend.

The human blood naturally contains glucose (sugar) which if it is in the right amount, provides the body’s cells and organs with energy used for the body metabolism. The blood sugar is provided by foods and drinks ingested into the body system. The body secretes a hormone in the pancreas called insulin. Insulin helps to regulate the blood glucose level. When there is a problem with insulin production or it is produced in an inadequate amount the blood sugar level rises and this is called hyperglycemia. According to the American Diabetes Association, normal blood sugar level is between the range of 80-130 ml/dL.

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red tomatoes on board
Intraspecific Crosses in Tomato for Improvement of Fruit Quality: A Strategy for Enhanced Food Security

by Gbadamosi, A. E., Osekita, O.S., Ajayi, A.T., Ajileye, O.D. and Okere, A. U.


Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable crops in Africa and all over the world. World tomato production in 2001 was about 103 million tons of fresh fruits on an estimated 3.9 million hectares of land. Hence, is ranked at the top of all fruits and vegetables as a source of vitamins and minerals in the U.S. It plays a major role in human nutrition, as an excellent source of phosphorus, iron, and vitamins A, B and C. It is relatively a short duration crop and gives a high yield, and it is economically attractive and the area under cultivation is increasing. It is a tropical day neutral plant and predominantly self-pollinated, but a certain percentage of cross pollination occurs.

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Alkaloids: Their Importance in Nature and for Human Life

by Joanna Kurek


In nature there are many natural compounds. From among many classes of naturally occurring organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and steroids, the one that seems to be quite special is alkaloids. What makes them special? They derived from amino acids and can be synthetized as secondary metabolites by plants and some animals. These compounds play an important role in living organisms.

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Flavonoids: An Overview

by Panche, A. N., Diwan, A. D., & Chandra, S. R.

Part 1: Abstract and Introduction

Flavonoids, a group of natural substances with variable phenolic structures, are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and wine. These natural products are well known for their beneficial effects on health and efforts are being made to isolate the ingredients so called flavonoids. Flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal and cosmetic applications. This is attributed to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties coupled with their capacity to modulate key cellular enzyme function. Research on flavonoids received an added impulse with the discovery of the low cardiovascular mortality rate and also prevention of CHD.

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Product Review: The Various Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

In investigating the nutraceutical properties of fishes in the month of March, we discovered a highly important group of fatty acids called the Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs or n-3 PUFAs) are unsaturated fatty acids, and currently, the three most clinically relevant types are ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Oils containing these fatty acids originate in plant sources and can be found in fish, fish products, seeds, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and beans.

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Probiotics and the potential for the treatment of peptic ulcer

By Oluwatosin Akomolafe

The wake of COVID-19 has shown us that human and scientific efforts are required to combat diseases. However, the sudden outbreak of a pandemic like COVID-19 could also divert attention of researchers and scientists from focusing on existing and ongoing research to the new enemy of humanity. One area we hope will not be pushed aside is the role of probiotics and nutraceuticals in nutrition, health, and wellbeing and of course, cure for some for some diseases. This article focuses on probiotics and potentials for the treatment of ulcers.

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New Concepts in Nutraceuticals as Alternative for Pharmaceuticals

by Hamid Nasri, Azar Baradaran, Hedayatollah Shirzad, and Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei


Nutraceutic is a term derived from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutics.” The term is applied to products that are isolated from herbal products, dietary supplements (nutrients), specific diets, and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages that other than nutrition are also used as medicine.

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pineapple next to bowl
Probiotics (II): Mechanisms of Action

Although the exact ways of actions are not fully understood, the possible modes of probiotics action include the following:

Enhancement of epithelial barrier function

Intestinal barrier function is maintained by several interrelated systems including mucus secretion, chloride and water secretion, and binding together of epithelial cells at their apical junctions by tight junction proteins. Integral to the gut barrier defense is mucus which is composed of mucins (MUC 2 and MUC 3) which are secreted from the goblet cells.

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Vine Cutting Propagation in Four Varieties of Yam Using Different Planting Media

By Gbadamosi, A.E., Ajayi, A.T. and Osekita, O.S. 

Yams (Dioscorea spp), are one of the most  important staple crops in West Africa. They belong to the family Dioscoreaceae,  which produce economically important tubers  and bulbils. They are vegetatively  propagated by small whole tubers or pieces (>200  g) of tubers. Yam  (Dioscorea spp.) originated from Africa and Asia  and later spread to other parts of the world. There are many cultivars of yam,  though only six are important as staple foods in  the tropics. The economically important species  grown are Dioscorea rotundata (white yam),  Dioscorea alata (water yam), Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam), Dioscorea esculenta (Chinese yam)  and Dioscorea dumetorum (trifoliate yam).

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Genetic variation & tolerance indices interactions among wheat accessions under drought

by Victor Olugbenga Olumekun, Abiola Toyin Ajayi and Oluwasegun Victor Ibidapo

In recent times, wheat has gained more acceptance and utilisation over the traditional staples such as tubers and  other cereals in Africa as a  consequence of increased demand for dietary enhancement  due to urbanisation and increased population in regions  where staple was predominantly known to come from  maize. The pressure on wheat has now  risen to the level in which local production is grossly  overwhelmed by demand, hence the reliance on  importation to cater for the deficit in local supply. Developing nations in general have therefore  progressively become significant net importers of wheat,  accounting for 43% of their food imports. Africa’s wheat  importation is anticipated to increase by 23.1 million  metric tonnes by 2050 with both the largest rate of  population growth and wheat consumption per person.

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Crossability and inheritance of seed coat colour in cowpea at F1 generation

By Abiola Toyin Ajayi

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is a crop of significant importance in Africa; it serves as a source of proteins in the tropical and subtropical countries, where Nigeria is ranked the highest in terms of production. It is a source of income for the people of Africa where it is widely cultivated for different purposes. Despite the good attributes of cowpea, one of the major constraints hampering its productivity in Nigeria is drought.

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An Introduction to Lipase

by Adebayo Osesusi

Lipases are a group of water-soluble enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (and synthesis) of ester bonds in insoluble acylglycerols at lipid-water interfaces. Lipases hydrolyze triacylglycerides into  diacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides, free fatty acids  and glycerols. Lipase reaction occurs at the interface between the aqueous and the oil phases  because of an opposite polarity between the enzyme  (hydrophilic) and their substrates (lipophilic).

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Pectinase: A Brief Overview of Industrial Enzymes

by Adebayo Osesusi

Enzymes are biocatalysts produced by living organisms to increase the rate of a set of chemical reactions required for various life processes. They are responsible for the catalysis of all essential life processes such as DNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, metabolism, and signal transduction. Their ability to perform very specific chemical transformations has made them increasingly useful in numerous industrial processes.

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